Fibrin matrices as (injectable) biomaterials: formation, clinical use and molecular engineering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Authors:
  • Iwan Roberts
  • Deena Bukhary
  • Christopher Yusef Leon Valdivieso
  • Nicola Tirelli


This review focuses on fibrin, starting from biological mechanisms (its production from fibrinogen and its enzymatic degradation), through its use as a medical device and as a biomaterial, and finally discussing the techniques used to add biological functions and/or improve its mechanical performance through its molecular engineering. Fibrin is a material of biological (human, and even patient's own) origin, injectable, adhesive, and remodellable by cells; further, it is nature's most common choice for an in situ forming, provisional matrix. Its widespread use in the clinic and in research is therefore completely unsurprising. There are, however, areas where its biomedical performance can be improved, namely achieving a better control over mechanical properties (and possibly higher modulus), slowing down degradation or incorporating cell‐instructive functions (e.g., controlled delivery of growth factors). The authors here specifically review the efforts made in the last 20 years to achieve these aims via biomimetic reactions or self‐assembly, as much via formation of hybrid materials.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
JournalMacromolecular Bioscience
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2019