Background: Air pollution is an important risk factor for the disease burden; however there is limited evidence in Indonesia on the effect of air pollution on health, due to lack of exposure and health outcome data. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential use of the IFLS data for response part of urban-scale air pollution exposure–health response studies. Methods: Relevant variables were extracted based on IFLS5 documentation review. Analysis of the spatial distribution of respondent, data completeness, prevalence of relevant health outcomes, and consistency or agreement evaluation between similar variables were performed. Power for ideal sample size was estimated. Results: There were 58,304 respondents across 23 provinces, with the highest density in Jakarta (750/district). Among chronic conditions, hypertension had the highest prevalence (15–25%) with data completeness of 79–83%. Consistency among self-reported health outcome variables was 90–99%, while that with objective measurements was 42–70%. The estimated statistical power for studying air pollution effect on hypertension (prevalence = 17%) in Jakarta was approximately 0.6 (α = 0.1). Conclusions: IFLS5 data has potential use for epidemiological study of air pollution and health outcomes such as hypertension, to be coupled with high quality urban-scale air pollution exposure estimates, particularly in Jakarta.