Exposure and sensitization in infants and children.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Authors:
  • A. Custovic
  • A. Woodcock

Abstract

The complex relationship between allergen exposure, atopic sensitization and asthma in individuals and in populations has recently been a subject of controversy. A number of studies have demonstrated that allergen exposure in sensitized asthmatic individuals increases the severity of disease. A simple dose-response relationship between mite allergen exposure and specific sensitization in infants and children has been confirmed. However, the concept that there is a direct relationship between allergen exposure and the initiation of asthma has been challenged. The relationship between allergen exposure and subsequent disease development is complex, and is confounded by a number of important factors. Populations and individuals are exposed to a mixture of several allergens, irritants and pollutants, and we know very little about the impact of these mixtures and their possible synergistic effect. The dose-response relationship between allergen exposure and allergic disease may not be linear, and may be different for different allergens. For example, a protective effect of cat ownership on sensitization and allergic disease has been reported, raising the question of whether the dose-response relationship between exposure and sensitization may be different for cat compared with mite allergen. It has been suggested that many children who are exposed to a high level of cat allergen make a modified T helper type 2 response, characterized by the presence of IgG4 antibody to cat proteins without becoming allergic (i.e. no IgE response), which could be regarded as a form of tolerance. This could explain a decreased risk of asthma in children living in homes with cats, without invoking a concept of a shift in the balance of T helper types 1 and 2 responses. Cat allergen is ubiquitous, and passive exposure (e.g. home without cats and public places) may induce specific IgE responses in non-cat owners, whereas those exposed to very high levels of cat allergen may initially mount an IgE response, which may be replaced by a modified T helper type 2 response (tolerance). It is likely that the population susceptibility to allergic sensitization and also end-organ responsiveness has altered, and allergen exposure may still be important in initiating disease in an increasingly susceptible population, although the pattern may differ for different allergens.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-138
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent opinion in allergy and clinical immunology
Volume1
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2001