PURPOSE: To present the detailed phenotype of a subject with MRCS (microcornea, retinal dystrophy, cataract, and posterior staphyloma) syndrome and to investigate the underlying molecular genetic basis. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: Clinical examination, electrophysiologic assessment, B-scan ultrasonography, and mutation screening of the gene VMD2. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: A 12-year-old boy was identified with bilateral microcornea, rod-cone dystrophy, congenital cataracts, and posterior staphylomata associated with high myopia (MRCS). Mutation screening failed to identify disease-causing sequence variants in VMD2, the gene associated with MRCS syndrome. All previous subjects have had pathogenic VMD2 sequence alterations. CONCLUSIONS: We present a further report of the MRCS syndrome and provide evidence in support of genetic heterogeneity in this phenotype. © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.