Background: A job-exposure matrix (JEM) for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996. Methods: The data were grouped based on similarities in exposure levels and time trends in different departments, and were analyzed using smoothing splines and mixed effects models. Results: Although higher than in western European countries, inhalable aerosol exposure decreased after changes in production volume and implementation of exposure reduction measures in mid-1980s. Aromatic amines concentrations first increased following the factory's production volume, but subsequently decreased in more recent years. CSM concentrations were uniformly distributed between departments. Conclusions: This JEM provides an overview of historical exposure levels in a large Polish rubber factory and will enable estimation of lifetime exposure for individual workers in a Polish rubber workers cohort and further investigation of the associations between specific exposures and cancer risk. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.