Background: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin deposits can be found in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients. The peptide is suggested to be involved in the etiology of the disease through formation of amyloid deposits and destruction of β islet cells, though the underlying molecular events leading from IAPP deposition to β cell death are still largely unknown.
Results: We used OFFGEL™ proteomics to study how IAPP exposure affects the proteome of rat pancreatic insulinoma Rin-5F cells. The OFFGELTM methodology is highly effective at generating quantitative data on hundreds of proteins affected by IAPP, with its accuracy confirmed by In Cell Western and Quantitative Real Time PCR results. Combining data on individual proteins identifies pathways and protein complexes affected by IAPP. IAPP disrupts protein synthesis and degradation, and induces oxidative stress. It causes decreases in protein transport and localization. IAPP disrupts the regulation of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and increases catabolic processes. IAPP causes decreases in protein transport and localization, and affects the cytoskeleton, DNA repair and oxidative stress.
Conclusions: Results is consistent with a model where IAPP aggregates overwhelm the ability of a cell to degrade proteins via the ubiquitin system. Ultimately this leads to apoptosis. IAPP aggregates may be also toxic to the cell by causing oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage or by decreasing protein transport. The reversal of any of these effects, perhaps by targeting proteins which alter in response to IAPP, may be beneficial for type II diabetes.