One of the most important objectives in the surface engineering of light-weight alloys is to enhance their fatigue properties, allowing both increased performance and an extended service life. This can be achieved by forming a hard surface layer while incorporating a favourable stress state. Single surface treatments, for example, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO), are not always capable of creating optimal combinations of these characteristics, whereas greater durability can be achieved by applying mechanical pre-treatments prior to the coating. In this work, a combination of shot-peening pre-treatment with plasma electrolytic oxidation coating is studied as a means to improve the fatigue performance of 2024 T351 Al alloy. The shot-peening was carried out in a compressed air configuration using S110 gauge shot at 200% coverage with an intensity of 20 AlmenC. PEO coatings of 30 μm thickness were produced using pulsed bipolar current technology. Fatigue properties were evaluated by a four-point bending technique at a stress ratio of 0.1. Hardness, residual stress and microstructure of the surface layers were studied by Knoop microhardness tests, fluorescence spectroscopy and SEM analyses, respectively. The effect of the combined shot-peening and PEO treatment is an increased fatigue limit and elevated microhardness when compared to aluminium treated only with PEO.