This report provides a framework to aid examination of the links between poverty and educational attainment in the UK. Although there is widespread agreement that poverty and poor educational outcomes are related, there are competing explanations as to why that should be the case. This report provides a framework, which organises the research literature around studies that focus on: - the individual (the micro level) - the immediate social context, which might be located in families, communities, schools and peer groups (the meso level), and - social structures (the macro level). These levels are underpinned by two broad perspectives that provide quite different views about the purpose of education. The framework is then used to examine current policy in the area of education and poverty and suggest possible future directions. The report will be of interest to researchers and policymakers in the educational policy field.