Risk-stratified breast cancer screening may improve the balance of screening benefits to harms.
We assess a potential new harm: reduced screening attendance in women receiving below average-risk (false reassurance) or higher-risk results (screening avoidance). Following initial screening, 26,668 women in the PROCAS study received breast cancer risk estimates, with attendance recorded for two subsequent screening rounds. First-screen attendance was slightly reduced in below-average (85.6%) but not higher-risk women, compared to other women (86.4%). Second-screen attendance increased for women at higher-risk (89.2%) but not below-average, compared to other women (78.8%). Concerns about this potential harm of risk-stratified screening therefore appear unfounded.