Immunotherapies are beginning to revolutionise treatment paradigms in oncology with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting T-cell co-inhibitory (e.g. PD-1/PD-L1) and co-stimulatory pathways (e.g. CTLA-4/CD28) demonstrating clinical utility. Some clinical studies demonstrate that responsiveness to PD-1/PD-L1 mAb therapy is greater in patients with expression of PD-L1 in the tumour microenvironment. However, robust responses have also been observed in patients with low or absent expression of PD-L1. Using multiplex immuno-fluorescent labelling we sought to determine how infiltration of tumours by CD8+ T-cells, their expression of PD-1, and the expression of PD-L1 on both tumours and CD68 cells (macrophages) correlated with HPV status and outcome in a cohort of 124 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC).