Diagnostic performance and repeatability of a novel game-based visual field test for children

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • Zaria C Ali
  • Yanfang Wang
  • Cecilia Fenerty
  • Susmito Biswas
  • Emmanouil Tsamis
  • David Henson


Purpose: To demonstrate utility of a game-based test (“Caspar's Castle”) for the detection of visual field defects in children.

Methods: A validity and reliability study was carried out at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital Pediatric Ophthalmology Outpatients Department. We recruited 108 children with no eye pathology (aged 4–12 years) and examined a single eye with the Caspar's Castle system using either normal thresholds or thresholds artificially adapted to recreate defects to assess diagnostic utility. Number of peripheral stimuli missed was used to determine sensitivity and specificity of artificial defect detection and to plot receiver-operator characteristic curves. A further 21 children (aged 4–16 years) with pathology were recruited and Caspar's fields compared qualitatively with established field testing. A total of 106 of the Caspar's Castle examinations were able to be performed twice and repeatability was determined through coefficient of repeatability and Bland–Altman chart.

Results: In diagnostic testing using children with no eye pathology, 45 children completed a test using normal thresholds and 43 with tests using artificial defects. Area under receiver-operator characteristic curves for artificial defect detection was 0.895. Of the 21 children with pathology, seven had completed standard Humphreys field testing and Caspar's Castle fields corresponded with each of these by expert opinion. Coefficient of repeatability for number of points missed across all cohorts of children (106 patients) was 6.9 (95% confidence interval: 6.16–8.07).

Conclusions: The Caspar's Castle system of assessing visual fields using novel game-based strategies demonstrates encouraging levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. It could help address current difficulties in perimetry in young children.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1532-1537
Number of pages5
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number3
Early online date1 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018