Africa is a continent with remarkable economic potential yet the least developed largely due to its inadequate human capital to transform this potential into social and economic development. The focus on provision of classroom education as the cornerstone of human capital development in Africa has not produced the desirable outcomes expected. We see an important role in this process within the workplace, and thus argue that the role of Human Resource (HR) professionals in Human Capital development in Africa deserves serious attention. The paper outlines why and how HR professionals can contribute to the development of Africa’s human capital. It also highlights the challenges HR professionals will face and the competencies they will need to address the challenges. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research.