The acute wound healing process requires a quick and short-stage vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) supply, especially, in the early-stage of injury. To date, research has rarely met the demand for controlled VEGF quick release. Herein, a novel wheel spinning technique was introduced to fabricate alginate (Alg)/ silk fibroin (SF) composite fiber for loading VEGF and achieving controllable release. In turn, it was demonstrated that the parameter of wheel spinning and Alg/SF material morphological combination significantly influence VEGF release behavior and fiber degradation speed, which could be controlled by adjusting spinning solution concentration and modifying SF morphology. The loading concentration and SF structural features interacted with each other to affect the VEGF release behavior, indicating that growth factors such as VEGF could be released in a controllable fashion. It could therefore be developed as a novel approach to control the wound healing process.