Cell migration is a critical process that underpins a number of physiological and pathological contexts such as the correct functioning of the immune system and the spread of metastatic cancer cells. Central to this process are the Rho family of GTPases, which act as core regulators of cell migration. Rho GTPases are molecular switches that associate with lipid membranes and act to choreograph molecular events that underpin cell migration. Specifically, these GTPases play critical roles in coordinating force generation through driving the formation of cellular protrusions as well as cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesions. Here we provide an update on the many roles of Rho-family GTPases in coordinating protrusion and adhesion formation in the context of cell migration, as well as describing how their activity is controlled to by a variety of complex signalling networks.