The cocoa-chocolate value chain is undergoing rapid transformation. It is characterised by increased concentration amongst buyers, with fragmentation amongst producers (largely small-scale farmers in Africa). Commercial pressures are leading to downward prices and quality. However, greater consumer focus on quality, social and environmental sustainability facilitates higher premium prices in some market segments. This paper examines the changing dynamics of the cocoa-chocolate value chain and considers its effects on the development of the Ghanaian cocoa sector. The paper focuses on how the maintenance of a cocoa marketing board (COCOBOD) in Ghana has helped to maintain Ghana's position as a world producer of high quality cocoa, to negotiate with global buyers and to support small-scale producers. However, a rebalancing of power relations within the value chain is needed if the sustainability of the sector is to be secured.