Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: Comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL int, UGT) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL int, UGT on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CLint, UGT in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL int, UGT in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL int, UGT in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min -1 · g tissue -1 in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CLint, UGT (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL int, UGT for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately onethird of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL int, UGT (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL int, UGT is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-835
Number of pages10
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012