This report was commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). It explores why different types of student achieve different outcomes in UK higher education (HE). It examines the possible causes for differential outcomes and evaluates the steps being taken by institutions to close outcome gaps. The three student groups we focus on are (1) those from lower-socio-economic backgrounds, (2) disabled students, and (3) black and minority ethnic (BME) students, although reference is also made to part-time and mature students. The four HE outcomes we explore are (1) retention, (2) attainment, (3) progression to graduate employment and (4) progression to further study. Findings are intended to inform policy interventions and to help all learners in HE to meet their full potential.