Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk scores in Indonesia: The SMARThealth Extend study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • S Sujarwoto
  • Devarsetty Praveen
  • Anushka Patel


Background The brunt of cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally now resides within low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. However, little is known regarding cardiovascular health in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated CVD risk in a specific region of Indonesia. Methods We conducted full household screening for cardiovascular risk factors among adults aged 40 years and older in 8 villages in Malang District, East Java Province, Indonesia, in 2016-2017. 10-year cardiovascular risk scores were calculated based on the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension’s region-specific charts that use age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes status and smoking behaviour. Results Among 22,093 participants, 6,455 (29.2%) had high cardiovascular risk, defined as the presence of coronary heart disease, stroke or other atherosclerotic disease; estimated 10-year CVD risk of ≥ 30%; or estimated 10-year CVD risk between 10% to 29% combined with a systolic blood pressure of > 140 mmHg. The prevalence of high CVD risk was greater in urban (31.6%, CI 30.7-32.5%) than in semi-urban (28.7%, CI 27.3-30.1%) and rural areas (26.2%, CI 25.2-27.2%). Only 11% and 1% of all the respondents with high CVD risk were on blood pressure lowering and statins treatment, respectively. Conclusions High cardiovascular risk is common among Indonesian adults aged ≥40 years, and rates of preventive treatment are low. Population-based and clinical approaches to preventing CVD should be a priority in both urban and rural areas.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
JournalPLoS One.
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2019

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