Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the evaluation of liver disease in adults who have had the Fontan operation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Anushree Agarwal
  • Colin Cunnington
  • Aarthi Sabanayagam
  • Lucas Zier
  • Charles E McCulloch
  • Ian S Harris
  • Elyse Foster
  • Dougal Atkinson
  • Angela Bryan
  • Petra Jenkins
  • Jaspal Dua
  • Michael J Parker
  • Devinda Karunaratne
  • John A Moore
  • Jeffrey Meadows
  • J Andreas Hoschtitzky
  • Vaikom S Mahadevan

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Liver disease (LD) is a long-term complication in patients with a single ventricle who have had the Fontan operation. A decline in cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) variables is associated with increased risk of hospitalization, but its association with LD is unknown.

AIM: To determine the association between CPET variables and LD in adults who have had the Fontan operation.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from two tertiary institutions.

RESULTS: We identified 114 adults (≥18 years; mean 30.9±7.4 years) who had undergone the Fontan operation: 56% were women; 63% had total cavopulmonary connection; 66% had New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I status; 42% had arrhythmias; 22% had systemic right ventricle; and 35% had ventricular dysfunction. Of 81 patients with liver-imaging data, 41% had LD (i.e. imaging evidence of cirrhosis, with or without portal hypertension, splenomegaly or varices). There were no differences in clinical or echocardiographic variables between those with and without LD. Among the 58 patients with CPET data, mean peak oxygen consumption (VO2) was 18.6±5.7mL/kg/min, per-cent-predicted peak VO2 was 53.9±15.5%, peak oxygen pulse was 9.3±2.9mL/beat and per-cent-predicted peak oxygen pulse was 82.6±21.5%. Of the 44 patients with liver and CPET data, each standard deviation decrease in per-cent-predicted peak VO2 (16%) and per-cent-predicted peak oxygen pulse (22%) was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in the odds of LD, after adjusting for NYHA, institution and Fontan type (P=0.04). Similarly, each standard deviation decrease in per-cent-predicted peak VO2 and oxygen pulse was associated with an estimated 5.9-year and 4.9-year earlier onset of LD, respectively (P>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Decline in per-cent-predicted peak VO2 and oxygen pulse was associated with increased odds of LD in adults who had undergone the Fontan operation. Our study supports more rapid hepatic evaluation among patients with abnormal or worsening CPET variables.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of cardiovascular diseases
Volume111
Issue number4
Early online date1 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018