Over the last few years, considerable advances have been made in the field of nanotechnology. The advent of carbon nanotube functionalization has paved the way for their potential application as a delivery system of diverse molecules such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA, and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. This opens new therapeutic and preventive opportunities to combat diseases. The scope of this review is to summarize our recent work in this rapidly growing field. © 2005 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.