Nanomedicine is an emerging field that proposes the application of precisely engineered nanomaterials for the prevention, diagnosis and therapy of certain diseases, including neurological pathologies. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a new class of nanomaterials, which have been shown to be promising in different areas of nanomedicine. In this review, the application of CNT interfacing with the central nervous system (CNS) will be described, and representative examples of neuroprosthetic devices, such as neuronal implants and electrodes will be discussed. Furthermore, the possible application of CNT-based materials as regenerative matrices of neuronal tissue and as delivery systems for the therapy of CNS will be presented. © Springer-Verlag 2012.