Analysis of the osteogenic and mechanical characteristics of iron (Fe2+/Fe3+)-doped β‑calcium pyrophosphate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Emaan Alsubhe
  • Mozhdeh Mehrabi
  • El Mostafa Raif
  • Ali Hassanpour
  • Peter Giannoudis
  • Animesh Jha


The calcium phosphate is the main mineral constituent of bone. Although there has been significant amount of research on finding ideal synthetic bone, no suitable scaffold material has yet been found. In this investigation, the iron doped brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O) has been investigated for osteogenic potential and mechanical properties. The synthesis of iron-oxide doping in the form of Fe2+,3+-ions were carried out using the solution based method in which the ammonium hydrogen phosphate and calcium nitrate solutions were used in stoichiometric ratio for synthesizing CaHPO4·2H2O, with doping concentrations of Fe2+,3+-ions between 5 mol% and 30 mol%. The synthesized powders were analysed using X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR, SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The heat treatment of synthesized powder was carried out at 1000 °C in air for 5 h, and it was found that the dominant crystalline phase in samples with <20 mol% was β-CPP, which also formed an iron-rich solid solution phase. Increasing the concentrations of Fe2+,3+-ions enhances the phase fraction of FePO4 and amorphous phase. Amongst the Fe2+,3+-doped β-CPP minerals, it was found that the 10 mol% Fe2+,3+-doped β-CPP offers the best combination of bio-mechanical and osteogenic properties as a scaffold for bone tissue regenerative engineering.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Article number111053
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Early online date8 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020