A systematic review of the outcomes of using voice hearing simulation in the education of health care professionals and those in training

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Ian Wilson
  • Mike Fitzsimmons
  • Kate Crawford


To identify and synthesise data from studies that have evaluated the outcomes of voice hearing simulation as an educational intervention with health care professionals and those in training.

The research employed a systematic review that was informed by Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

Data sources
The databases Web of Science, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register and CINAHL were systematically searched to January 2020.

Review methods
Identified studies were screened by title (n = 509), abstract (n = 246) and full text (n = 56) using the following inclusion criteria: studies employing either qualitative and/or quantitative research methods, which have evaluated voice hearing simulation as a principal educational intervention with health care professionals during training or post-qualification.

Twenty six studies were included in the review. Eleven studies adopted mixed methods, five adopted quantitative methods and ten used qualitative methods. Although most of the studies were of low to medium quality the findings were encouraging and suggest that voice hearing simulation may be a useful educational intervention. Positive outcomes of simulation included improvements in empathy, attitudes, knowledge, understanding about voice hearing experiences and increased confidence in practice. The majority of participants that took part in voice hearing simulation thought that it was a powerful learning experience that should be offered to other health care professionals and those in training.

Voice hearing simulation is a valuable educational intervention that should be routinely used by academics when teaching health professionals and those in training about the experiences of people who hear voices. However, to confirm its true effects and optimum mode of delivery further better quality research is needed.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Article number104626
JournalNurse Education Today
Early online date27 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021