A study on volatile organic compounds emitted by in-vitro lung cancer cultured cells using gas sensor array and SPME-GCMS

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • Reena Thriumani
  • Ammar Zakaria
  • Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim
  • Amanina Iymia Jeffree
  • Khaled Mohamed Helmy
  • Latifah Munirah Kamarudin
  • Mohammad Iqbal Omar
  • Ali Yeon Md Shakaff
  • Abdul Hamid Adom


BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from exhaled breath from human bodies have been proven to be a useful source of information for early lung cancer diagnosis. To date, there are still arguable information on the production and origin of significant VOCs of cancer cells. Thus, this study aims to conduct in-vitro experiments involving related cell lines to verify the capability of VOCs in providing information of the cells.

METHOD: The performances of e-nose technology with different statistical methods to determine the best classifier were conducted and discussed. The gas sensor study has been complemented using solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For this purpose, the lung cancer cells (A549 and Calu-3) and control cell lines, breast cancer cell (MCF7) and non-cancerous lung cell (WI38VA13) were cultured in growth medium.

RESULTS: This study successfully provided a list of possible volatile organic compounds that can be specific biomarkers for lung cancer, even at the 24th hour of cell growth. Also, the Linear Discriminant Analysis-based One versus All-Support Vector Machine classifier, is able to produce high performance in distinguishing lung cancer from breast cancer cells and normal lung cells.

CONCLUSION: The findings in this work conclude that the specific VOC released from the cancer cells can act as the odour signature and potentially to be used as non-invasive screening of lung cancer using gas array sensor devices.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)362
Number of pages17
JournalBMC Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2018