The α,β-epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor TMC-86A was discovered as a previously unreported metabolite of Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC49982, and the gene cluster responsible for its biosynthesis was identified via genome sequencing. Incorporation experiments with [(13)C-methyl]l-methionine implicated an α-dimethyl-β-keto acid intermediate in the biosynthesis of TMC-86A. Incubation of the chemically synthesized α-dimethyl-β-keto acid with a purified recombinant flavin-dependent enzyme that is conserved in all known pathways for epoxyketone biosynthesis resulted in formation of the corresponding α-methyl-α,β-epoxyketone. This transformation appears to proceed via an unprecedented decarboxylation-dehydrogenation-monooxygenation cascade. The biosynthesis of the TMC-86A warhead is completed by cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation of the α-methyl-α,β-epoxyketone.