No comprehensive review of Bayesian networks (BNs) in healthcare has been published in the past, making it difficult to organize the research contributions in the present and identify challenges and neglected areas that need to be addressed in the future. This unique and novel scoping review of BNs in healthcare provides an analytical framework for comprehensively characterizing the domain and its current state. A literature search of health and health informatics literature databases using relevant keywords found 3810 articles that were reduced to 123. This was after screening out those presenting Bayesian statistics, meta-analysis or neural networks, as opposed to BNs and those describing the predictive performance of multiple machine learning algorithms, of which BNs were simply one type. Using the novel analytical framework, we show that: (1) BNs in healthcare are not used to their full potential; (2) a generic BN development process is lacking; (3) limitations exist in the way BNs in healthcare are presented in the literature, which impacts understanding, consensus towards systematic methodologies, practice and adoption; and (4) a gap exists between having an accurate BN and a useful BN that impacts clinical practice. This review highlights several neglected issues, such as restricted aims of BNs, ad hoc BN development methods, and the lack of BN adoption in practice and reveals to researchers and clinicians the need to address these problems. To map the way forward, the paper proposes future research directions and makes recommendations regarding BN development methods and adoption in practice.