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This approach went hand-in-hand with fashion retailers encouraging more frequent consumption of cheaper goods — so-called fast fashion — to drive revenue, says Patsy Perry, senior lecturer in fashion business at the University of Manchester. Many fast-fashion brands take in new stock every week. Retailers, she says, have always had the upper hand in their relationships with Asian manufacturers, with demands of retroactive discounts commonplace in the industry. “We hear a lot of talk about partnerships but if a supplier says it cannot agree to certain terms, then the retailer can always go somewhere else,” Ms Perry says.