In the late 1990s, a significant barrier to the adoption of virtual reality software was the expense of manually creating models of real-world scenes. To address this, between 1998 and 2004, the ICARUS software system was developed, which enabled the creation of structured, 3D geometric models from a sequence of images or video. The system also pioneered improved methods of camera tracking. ICARUS was subsequently licensed and developed commercially, and became the foundation for video and film post-production products that are used worldwide in the film (e.g. Universal Pictures, Warner Bros, Paramount Pictures) and television (e.g. BBC) industries, underpinning a company with an annual turnover in excess of £1m.