Binary translation enables applications compiled for one architecture to run on another. Research on dynamic binary translation was commercialised through the spin-out company Transitive in 2000. Transitive employed 80 staff at its engineering lab in Manchester and delivered over 20 million copies of its software, before being acquired by IBM in 2009, giving rise to the IBM Manchester Lab. Transitive technology was fundamental in Apple’s transition to Intel CPU chips, and was shipped with around 14 million Mac computers during the REF period. The technology was described as “The most amazing software you’ll never see” by Steve Jobs.